Here’s a quick excerpt from our updated and expanded guide to COVID-19 Genes & SNPs
Transmembrane protease serine 2 (TMPRSS2)
- TMPRSS2 is a Serine protease that proteolytically cleaves and activates the viral spike glycoproteins which then facilitates virus-cell membrane fusions; spike proteins are synthesized and maintained in precursor intermediate folding states and proteolysis permits the refolding and energy release required to create stable virus-cell linkages and membrane coalescence. This Serine protease facilitates human COVID-19 infection via two independent mechanisms, (1) proteolytic cleavage of ACE2, which might promote viral uptake, and (2) cleavage of coronavirus spike glycoprotein which activates the glycoprotein for cathepsin L-independent host cell entry. Essential for spread and pathogenesis of COVID-19.
- This Serine protease is expressed in type II pneumocytes in the lung (at protein level). Expressed strongly in small intestine.
- It is involved in the activation of viral glycoproteins/viral entry across a range of viruses, including SARS-CoV-2.
- NOTE: Recommended by Chinese and South Korean health authorities for the treatment of COVID-19 hydroxychloroquine and its related drug chloroquine. Hydroxychloroquine is a decades-old and inexpensive anti-malaria drug to treat coronavirus, and MAY enable faster healing times and shorter hospital stays in those who contract the infection.
- Brand names of Hydroxychloroquine include Plaquenil, Hydroquin, Axemal (in India), Dolquine, Quensyl, Quinoric
- SARS-CoV-2 entry into cells is partially blocked in vitro by the protease inhibitor via serine protease inhibitor camostat mesylate.
- https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4774534/, ”…Serine protease inhibitors blocked coronavirus entry into caco-2 cells, and Camostat protected 6 of 10 mice from lethal infection with SARS-CoV-2.” https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Camostat